Milk escaped


Milk, in addition to water, contains long polymer molecules. When water evaporates from the surface layers when milk is heated, these molecules adhere and form a strong film. Meanwhile, tiny bubbles appear at the bottom – this is the gas dissolved in the liquid. Water also begins to evaporate inside the bubbles, they grow, and their walls are reinforced with a polymer film.

When the bubbles float, they rest against the film on the surface and cannot, as in water, burst and release steam. As the milk approaches the boiling point, the number of bubbles increases, they form foam, which lifts the polymer film. At the same time, the bubbles themselves are strong enough and do not burst. Propped from below with new ones, they quickly overflow the pan.

молоко в кувшине

Understanding the nature of this phenomenon allows you to successfully deal with it. So that the milk does not run away, it is stirred, not allowing the film to appear. The easiest way is if the bubbles themselves rise from the bottom. It is only necessary that they float to the surface already enlarged, then any film will be nothing to them.

The Soviet industry even produced “milk guards” in the form of a stainless steel disc with concentric grooves. Its surface is smooth and easy to clean. The disk is placed on the bottom of the pan, while quite a lot of air remains in the grooves, and vapors of boiling milk tend to come here. As a result, rather large bubbles form at the bottom, which float to the surface through a special neck in the disk. Foam in this case is not formed, and the milk does not run away. It was even possible not to look after it – this is such a physical prototype of today’s smart things: as soon as large bubbles formed, the disk began to rumble slightly.

Churchkhela in Georgian


It is known that the name churchkhela comes from the Megrelian words “chkhur”, which translates as “cold”, and “chkher”, which means “hot”. The name fully reflects the process of making churchkhela, when the nuts are first dipped into a hot mass, and then the chupchkhela is cooled while drying. By the way, in addition to Georgian cuisine, the recipe for churchkhela is found in the cuisines of Armenia, Ukraine, as well as in the Black Sea and Caucasian regions of Russia.


  • wheat flour – 750 g
  • peeled nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds) – 700 g
  • natural grape juice – 3 l
  • cornmeal – 250 g

Step-by-step recipe for cooking churchkhela

  1. Roast the nuts in a dry frying pan for 3-4 minutes. Cool slightly. Peel hazelnuts and almonds by rubbing the kernels between the palms. Chop walnuts into large pieces.
  2. Using a thick needle, string the nuts (2/3 of the length of the thread) onto several strong threads 45 cm long. Make a large knot at the end. Tie the workpieces in pairs by the free ends and hang them on a wide crossbar.
  3. Prepare grape jelly. Pour the juice into a saucepan, bring to a boil and cook for 10 minutes. Pour 1 liter of juice into a bowl and let cool. Boil the remaining juice for another 10 minutes.
  4. Pour corn and wheat flour into a bowl with chilled juice and stir thoroughly until the lumps are completely dissolved.
  5. Gradually, stirring, pour the resulting slurry into the boiling juice. Cook for about 25 minutes, until the consistency of thick porridge.
  6. Place a tray under the crossbar with blanks. Dip each blank in grape jelly and hang on the crossbar. When all the threads with nuts are doused with jelly and dry a little, repeat the procedure. Place the crossbar with “raw” churchkhela in a well-ventilated room for 2 weeks. Store the finished churchkhela, wrapped in parchment, in a dark place.

Churchkhela is a delicacy of Georgian cuisine. It exists under other names in neighboring countries, Armenia and Azerbaijan. According to legend, churchkhela was originally a “warrior’s food”, it could be stored for as long as you like at any temperature, which was important in turbulent times.